There are really just two basic things you need to do to most LinkedIn profiles to get the most out of them from an SEO standpoint.
Customize your URL. My LinkedIn profile URL is http://linkedin.com/in/mikevolpe - and you can have one just like it with your name in the URL making it more likely for your profile to rank for searches for your name.
Add Custom Anchor Text to Links. You can have up to 3 links on your profile to other websites, and these links pass SEO authority. If you customize the anchor text on the links, you can get the most out of them.